Forest landscape restoration can take many forms such as: new tree plantings, managed natural regeneration, agroforestry, or improved land management to accommodate a mosaic of land uses, including agriculture. FLR landscapes are typically categorised in three ways, each incorporating different types of restoration:

Forest land: This is land where forests are or are meant to become the dominant land feature. It can include both protected and productive forests. If the land is without trees, it can be restored either through planting or natural regeneration. Degraded forests can be restored through rehabilitation and silvicultural treatments.

Agricultural land: This is land that is being managed to produce food. If the land is under permanent management, it can be restored through agroforestry. If it is under intermittent management, it can be restored through improved fallow.

Protective lands and buffers: This is land that is either susceptible to, or critical in safeguarding against, climatic or other events. While the land may be used for agricultural or forest production it also has a very special value in safeguarding lives, property and ecosystem services. It is typically – but not always – closely associated with marine and freshwater ecosystems. FLR interventions can involve mangrove restoration or watershed protection and erosion control, protected wildlife reserves, managed plantations, riverside plantings and more.

FLR Options Framework 

table of seven FLR intervention types