Indonesia map

Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, Indonesia is the world's largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support the world's second highest level of biodiversity, after Brazil. Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic. Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands make Indonesia the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Much of Indonesia's deforestation is caused by forest clearing for the palm oil industry, which has cleared 18 million hectares of forest for palm oil expansion. (Wikipedia)

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
181,157,000 hectares
Area of forest
50.2% of land area
Area of agriculture
31.5% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
12.4% of land area


257.6 million
Population growth
1.2% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
GDP per person
3346.50 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
1.90 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
Bonn Challenge Commitments
Asia Pulp & Paper Group
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
1,000,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
314 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.09 GtCO2 sequestered
National Restoration Targets
Total restoration target
29,294,990 hectares
Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) – FCPF
R-Plan: Indonesia (2009)
  • Component 6: Assess investment and capacity building requirements (p. 41-45)
    • Objectives: To assess investment and capacity building required to tackle drivers of deforestation and degradation in Indonesia 
    • Key strategies to achieve objective:
      • Implementation of strategies for more effective conservation and management of Protected Areas 
        • Activities: Development of effective management of protected areas, including protection forest in upper watersheds 
      • Testing strategies for restoration of Peatlands 
      • Enhancement of the capacity of community groups, including adat communities to engage in forest management through REDD activities 
        • Improve quality of life of low income families, living in or adjacent to natural forests, to protect the rights of forest dependent indigenous peoples and local communities 
REDD+ Strategy
REDD+ National Strategy (2012)
  • Program Strategies: Conservation and Rehabilitation (p. 36)
    • Establishing protected area function
    • Controlling conversion of forests and peatland 
    • Restoration of forests and rehabilitation of peatlands. 
  • Ecosystem Restoration Concessions (within Strategic program 3): estimate of 6.5 million ha available for rehabilitation (p. 12)
National Forest and/or Climate Strategy and/or Low Carbon Development Strategy
Restoration target
28,546,200 hectares
Indonesia Second National Communication (2010)
  • Rate of planting in the Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Forestry 2010-2020 (p. V-23):
    • Forest Plantation: 5.8 million ha
    • Community Forest: 5.5 million ha
    • Forest Restoration: 5.75 million ha
    • Watershed Rehabilitation: 3.55 million ha
    • Partnership Forest: 0.55 million ha
Presidential Regulation 61: National Action Plan for GHG Emissions Reductions (2011)
  • Agricultural Sector (pg. 14):
    • Develop Plantations (oil palm, rubber, cacao) on non-forested, abandoned, degraded, and/or Other use areas (2011-2014) 
    • Oil palm: 860,000 ha ; Rubber: 105,200 ha ; Cacao: 687,000 ha
  • Forestry & Peatland Sector
    • Forest Area Utilization: Business License for Timber Forest Products, Natural Forest/Ecosystem Restoration on Logged Over Area – 2.5 million ha (2010-2014) (pg. 5)
    • Developing agricultural land management on degraded peat land areas to support plantations, animals and other horticulture: 250,000 ha (2011-2014) (pg. 6)
    • Implementation of a forest and land rehabilitation and forest reclamation in the prioritized watersheds (2010-2014) (pg. 7)
      • 500,000 ha of forest in prioritized watersheds are rehabilitated
      • Critical areas of 1.954 million ha in prioritized watershed are rehabilitated
      • 40,000 ha of Mangrove/coastal forest is rehabilitated
    • Develop Social Forestry: Designate Community/Village Forest management work area: 2.5 million ha (2010-2014) (pg. 7)
    • Enhancement of Plantation Forest Business: Industrial plantation forest and people’s plantation forest: 3 million ha (2010-2014) (pg. 9)
Emission Reduction Program Idea Note (ER-PIN) – FCPF
Emission Reductions Program Idea Note: Republic of Indonesia (2014)
  • Program Design Phase – Oct. 2014 (18-24 months)
    • ER activities begin 2016 until at least 2030 (expected to be active over at least the next 30 years)
    • ER program to operate in 7 districts (12.5 Mha area; 4.1 Mha forest area)
      • Kutai Barat (pg. 24)
        • Activity: protection and restoration of forests in mining concessions
      • Kapuas (pg. 25-26)
        • Allocation of KH (Forest Estate) areas for ecosystem restoration and REDD+ activities
        • Support for community-based reforestation of degraded forests and peatland
      • Merangin (pg. 25)
        • Programs to address forest and land rehabilitation
      • Bungo (pg. 25)
        • Expanding agroforestry practices
        • Activities linked to forest and land rehabilitation
      • Donggala and Tolitoli (pg. 25)
        • Forest and land rehabilitation
    • Utilize PNPM Green (financing instrument) (pg. 48)
      • Activities that have been financed in the past include: agroforestry, tree planting, and reforestation
Forest Investment Program (FIP)
Restoration target
640,000 hectares
Investment Plan for Indonesia (2012)
  • The FIP activities will support 3 themes
    • Theme 1: Institutional development for Sustainable Forest Management and NRM which supports forest management activities carried out by the KPH (Forest Management Units) institutions – including forest and land rehabilitation
    • Theme 2: Forest Enterprises and Community Based Forest Management which includes upstream interventions like Sustainable Forest Management and ecosystem restoration, plantation management on degraded forests
    • Theme 3: Community land use planning and livelihoods development with activities like setting up fund to pilot performance-based incentive REDD+ schemes that include Assisted Natural Regeneration
  • Project 1: Community-Focused Investments to Address Deforestation and Forest Degradation (CFI-ADD+) Budget ($17.5 million + $6 million co-financing) = $23.5 million (pg. 54)
    • Project will reduce deforestation and forest degradation while identifying opportunities for forest restoration across KPHs in targeted districts in West Kalimantan
  • Project 2: Strengthening Forestry Enterprises to Mitigate Carbon Emissions - Budget: ($2.5 million grant + $32.5 million loan + $99 million expected co-financing) = $134 million with the following Initiatives (pg. 73)
    • Ecosystem Restoration: 100,000-300,000 ha in West & Central Kalimantan
    • Community Forestry/Agroforestry: 20,000-40,000 ha in Aceh, Java, Sulawesi, West Kalimantan
    • Plantation Management: 100,000-300,000 ha in West/East Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Sumatra
Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects
Restoration target
108,790 hectares
Strengthening Forest and Ecosystem Connectivity in RIMBA Landscape of Central Sumatra through Investing in Natural Capital, Biodiversity Conservation, and Land-based Emission Reductions (2013)
  • 2013 for 72 months
  • Large-scale demonstration of the RIMBA Green Economy for forests, water, carbon and biodiversity
    • Indicators of viability and replicability of investing in the RIMBA forests and its natural capital in 9 districts (pg. 3)
      • 13,790 ha restored forests in zones critical to biodiversity and ecosystem connectivity
      • 10,000 ha peatland and/or peat forests rehabilitated
  • Investment 1: Reforestation of 3,290 ha of HCVF corridor sites (pg. 12)
    • 60,000 ha under protection and SFM
    • Upland forest management and rehabilitation for 25,000 ha
  • Investment 2: Restoration of peatswamp, peat forests (10,000 ha) (pg. 13)
  • Investment 3: Reforestation of 500 ha of catchment forest (pg. 13)
FLR Assessments

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