Madagascar map

Madagascar is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar (the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Madagascar split from the Indian peninsula around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife and more than 80% of Madagascar's 14,883 plant species are found nowhere else in the world. Three-fourths of Madagascar's 860 orchid species are found here alone, as are six of the world's nine baobab species. The island is also home to around 170 palm species, three times as many as on all of mainland Africa; 165 of them are endemic. According to a conservative estimate, about 40% of the island's original forest cover was lost from the 1950s to 2000, with a thinning of remaining forest areas by 80%. It is anticipated that all the island's rainforests, excluding those in protected areas and the steepest eastern mountain slopes, will have been deforested by 2025. (Wikipedia)

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
58,180,000 hectares
Area of forest
21.4% of land area
Area of agriculture
71.2% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
1.1% of land area


24.2 million
Population growth
2.8% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
GDP per person
411.80 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
0.10 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
Bonn Challenge Commitments
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
2,500,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
785 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.24 GtCO2 sequestered
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
1,500,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
471 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.14 GtCO2 sequestered
National Restoration Targets
Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) – FCPF
Readiness Preparation Propsal (R-PP) (2014)

Section 2b REDD+ Options

  • Sub-option 1.1 Harmonize protection and sustainable production strategies (page 79)
    • the main idea is to strike a better balance between protection and satisfying the needs for timber products. This process will be modeled on the national strategy for expanding the network of protected areas
    • Under this sub-option, a strategy for sustainably supplying markets with timber products will be developed, encompassing the sustainable use of existing natural and artificial forests as well as reforestation schemes and the restoration of degraded forest stands. Thus, this strategy will serve as a guiding line for REDD+ Strategic Sub-Options 2 and 3 discussed below
  • Sub-option 2.3: Promote reforestation schemes and the restoration of degraded forest resources (page 83)
    • This strategic sub-option focuses on increasing the forest cover and thereby the forest carbon stocks through reforestation and restoration of degraded areas and the fight against vegetation fires. In this area, the private sector can play a fundamental role, and the following measures are conceivable:
      • Improve the sustainable management of forest plantings through capacity-building and diversification of actors;
      • Boost the productivity of existing forest plantings, particularly in the case of energy wood plantings, through gradual diversification of the species used and the introduction of improved reproduction techniques, so as to reduce their gradual degradation.
    • Efforts to restore degraded natural forests will focus on the following measures at existing and future protected areas and KoloAla sites:
      • Maintain connectivity and conserve biodiversity by restoring sensitive points in forest corridors;
      • Promote forest research needed to improve native forest species regeneration techniques.
Emission Reduction Program Idea Note (ER-PIN) – FCPF
Emission Reductions Program Idea Note (ER-PIN) (2015)
  • Timeline: 25 years
  • 5.3 Description and justification of planned and ongoing activities under the proposed ER program
    • Strategy for logging - A strategy based on a combination of methods focused on sustainable forest management and restocking from degraded forests could allow a significant reduction of deforestation and promote enhancement of carbon stocks. This strategy could include (page 20):
      • The creation of alternative afforestation for timber and furniture based on fast-growing species, to provide regular timber stock in both time and template.
      • The sustainable management of degraded forest fallow for the recovery and the sustainable management of natural forest stock.
      • The agroforestry practice in forest fallows reconstitution, to increase the useful species for households and encourage the development of cash crops that require forest cover.
      • The development of created afforestation sustainable management plans and forest fallow regeneration.
  • Annex 2: List of measures, projects and programs implemented in the territory of Madagascar delimiting country’s forest protection engagement
    • National Reforestation Strategy: developed in 2004 to promote tree plantations for energy purposes (followed by further regional and local strategies). Since that time, more than 140,000 ha of peasant plantings of eucalyptus as well as 65,000 ha of industrial plantations of pine were launched as part of these strategies. (page 64)
  • Annex 3: relation between ER program activities and the emerging REDD+ strategy - Proposed activities (page 65)
    • Agroforestry (development of agriculture and livestock with trees)
    • Afforestation and reforestation: fuelwood and timber; private or communal (development of fuelwood and timber stocks in a quick cycle for local use or selling
    • Active ecosystem restoration for degraded forests
    • Passive ecosystem restoration with natural regeneration for degraded forests
Other (National Strategies and Plans, Rural Development Programs, Natura 2000 areas, projects, and goals)
Madagascar's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (2015)
  • Reforestation program: increase total area under forest cover with indigenous species by 270,000 ha (page 2)
  • Major Mitigation Actions – LULUCF (page 3)
    • Large scale reforestation for sustainable timber production and indigenous species for conservation
    • Large scale adoption of agroforestry
  • Major Mitigation Actions – Agriculture (page 3)
    • Dissemination of arboriculture: from 2018 – 5,000 ha/yr
  • Adaptation
    • Priority actions pre-2020
      • Restoration of natural forests and reinforcement of habitat connectivity (page 7)
    • Expected Impacts of actions before 2020
      • Restoration of 35,000 ha of primary forest areas and mangroves (page 7)
    • Actions to be undertaken 2020-2030
      • Restoration of natural habitats: forest and mangroves (45,000 ha) (page 8)
    • Expected impacts, until year 2025
      • 45,000 ha of forest area restored (page 8)
    • Expected impacts, until year 2030
      • Restoration of 55,500 ha of forests and mangroves (page 8)
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions of Developed Country Partners, Madagascar (2010)
  • Actions – Forestry Sector
    • Implement reforestation on a large scale across 22 regions (page 2)
    • Restore the Torotorofotsy wetland/watershed: 9,000 ha
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Country Profiles – NBSAPs, National Reports (5th)
5th National Report to the CBD (2014)
  • The NBSAP 2002-2012 – Objectives and Strategic Priorities
    • Biodiversity Conservation – Reducing the Pressures (page 57):
      • Sustainable Forest Plantations: Sustainable forest plantations include reforestation, restoration, forest enrichment, brushwood planting, agroforestry, and ornamental planting. The national policy and strategy here have included all actors and stakeholders in the implementation.
  • Evaluation of Progress (Aichi targets): target #; activities; effectiveness
    • Target 14; e.g. mangrove reforestation and restoration; insufficient
    • Target 15; mangroves reforestation and restoration, restoration of degraded ecosystems, incentives for forest plantations, bamboo plantations in lakes, river banks and mangrove restoration, site-focused reforestation and post-mining restoration, ecological rehabilitation for carbon sequestration within the scope of the CDM; very low effectiveness (page 112-113).
National Strategy and Action Plans for Biodiversity 2015-2025 (2015)
  • Strategic Objective 14: in 2025 terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems are protected and restored (page 83
  • Strategic Direction 14: promote sustainable management (page 83)
  • Strategic Objective 15: by 2025 ecosystem resilience and the contribution of ecosystems to climate mitigation and adaptation are strengthened, including restoration of at least 15% of degraded ecosystems and the fight against desertification (page 83)
  • Strategic Direction 15: establish restoration mechanisms for degraded ecosystems to then contribute to the fight against the effects of climate change (page 83)
  • Strategic Objective 15 Action Plan (page 133)
    • Action: Develop community programs of rehabilitation for key ecosystems, including protected/conservation areas and sustainable use to enhance the adaptability and mitigation to climate change (timetable: by 2025)
    • Action: Develop and implement a national restoration plan for priority ecosystems vulnerable to the effects of climate change (page 134)
      • Indicator: National Restoration Plan (timetable: by 2022)
      • Indicator: National Restoration Implementation Plan (timetable: by 2022)
5351 -- Strengthening the Network of New Protected Areas in Madagascar (approved 2013 and a duration of 48 months)
  • Expected outcome: National Action Plan for the Conservation of Mangroves fully approved and financed (complements Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan) (page 2)
  • Expected outcome: Nine New Protected Areas (297,000 ha) including micro-sites and key mangrove areas are given protection status - including critical mangrove sites that are restored (15,000 ha) (page 2-3)
  • Financing = $16,218,265
5352 – Conservation of Key Threatened, Endemic and Economically Valuable Species in Madagascar (approved 2014 and a duration of 60 months)
  • Component 2: Conserving 21 key species of global and national significance (20 tree species) – outcome indicators for improved conservation status: 100 ha of restored forest rich in the 20 species, 20 ha of agroforestry based on the 20 species – outputs include seedlings planted 260,000 (natural forest), 56,000 (agroforestry) (page 2-3)
  • Financing = $19,751,427
FLR Assessments

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