Map of Moldova

Moldova is a landlocked country, even though it is very close to the Black Sea. While most of the country is hilly, elevations never exceed 430 m (1,411 ft). Moldova's hills are part of the Moldavian Plateau, which geologically originate from the Carpathian Mountains. Moldova's rich soil and temperate continental climate (with warm summers and mild winters) have made the country one of the most productive agricultural regions since ancient times, and a major supplier of agricultural products in southeastern Europe. In agriculture, the economic reform started with the land cadastre reform. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and currently composes over 60% of the nation's GDP. Its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms. (Wikipedia)

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
3,287,000 hectares
Area of forest
12.4% of land area
Area of agriculture
74.8% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
8.9% of land area

People

Population
3.6 million
Population growth
-0.1% annually
Rural population
55.0%

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
15.5%
GDP per person
1848.10 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
1.40 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
34
National Restoration Targets
Total restoration target
160,000 hectares
UNFCCC NC5 and NC6
Restoration target
130,000 hectares
Third National Communication of the Republic of Moldova Under the UNFCCC (2013)
  • Summary: Policies and Measures - Forestry Sector (pg. 25)
    • Forests cover approximately 12% of the country’s territory, and to improve the situation authorities have set an objective to increase the afforested areas up to 15% by 2020, concurrently improving the condition of existing forests.
    • In this context, several policies were approved over the last decade to accomplish the set objective, while the key actions are outlined in the State Program for Regeneration and Afforestation of the Forestry Fund Land, planned for 2003-2020, and in the Program for Rational Land Use and Soil Fertility Enhancement for 2002-2010. Non-pollutant Development Mechanisms Projects “Soil Conservation in Moldova”, and “Community Forestry Sector Development in Moldova” also contribute to the accomplishment of this objective.
  • Policies and Measures – Forestry Sector (pg. 143)
    • Government outlined as an objective to increase the forest area up to 15% by 2020, improving the condition of existing forests as well. Several specific policies have been approved over the last decade to accomplish this objective, which equals to planting circa 130,000 hectares of forestry vegetation by 2020.
    • In addition to increasing the forests area, Moldova’s forests require multiple actions to be taken to improve their quality. To improve the situation in the forestry sector, the following actions are required:
      • Developing and implementing a national program for improving the condition of degraded forests and forestry biodiversity conservation 
      • Insuring gradual reconstruction/substitution of arboretums non-complying with stationary conditions
      • Insuring gradual conversion of cvercinea arboretum from grove regime to forest regime
    • The State Program for Regeneration and Afforestation of Forestry Fund Land for the period 2003-2020 (pg 144):
      • Provides for regeneration and afforestation of land plots from the Forestry Fund on an area of 95,100 ha, while the execution of the volume of works indicated requires 588.1 million MDL in total or 32.2 million MDL annually.
      • 2002-2010: planned forest regeneration works on a total area of 47,500 ha, including:
        • Plantation forestry crops: 12,300 ha
        • Supporting natural regeneration: 19,500 ha
        • Natural regeneration: 15,700 ha
    • Actual implementation (due to lack of finances):
      • Forest regeneration carried out on 30.2 thousand ha (63.6%), including:
        • Plantation of forestry crops: 8,500 ha (69.1%)
        • Supporting natural regeneration: 17,200 ha (88.2%)
        • Natural regeneration: 4,500 ha (28.7%)
    • Rational Use of Land and Soil Fertility Enhancement for the period 2002-2010 (pg. 145):
      • The forestry improvement works planed in this document included:
        • Creation of new forestry protection belts and reconstructing the existing ones;
        • Afforestation of degraded land on an area of 133.1 thousand hectares, including:
          • Forestry protection belts: 12,140 ha
          • Anti-erosion forestry belts: 28,330 ha
          • Water forestry protection belts: 14,940 ha
          • Plantations on degraded lands: 72,650 ha
          • Reconstruction of forestry protection belts: 5,020 ha
Republic of Moldova’s Intended National Determined Contribution (2015)
  • Specific Objective: Assure the development of climate resilience by reducing at least by 50% the climate change vulnerability and facilitate climate change adaptation in six priority sectors (agriculture, water resources, forestry, human health, energy and transport) by 2020.
  • The following climate change adaptation measures could be implemented in the Forestry Sector (pg. 19-20):
    • Revision and development of new important components of the forestry regulatory basis [including]: ecological reconstruction of forests
    • Revision of the regulatory framework pertaining to development of an appropriate financial mechanism in conservation and development of forestry resources, needed for expansion of lands covered with forestry vegetation etc.
    • Development and approval of the regulation on implementation and assuring functionality of the principles of participatory management of public forest resources; 
    • Increasing the forest cover, including in the climate change context mitigation and biodiversity conservation; development and implementation of projects aimed at planting protection forestry strips (buffer zones) for agricultural lands protection, anti-erosional purpose, and for waters protection
    • Establishment of plantation forests to meet the needs of population in fuel wood for heating, cooking etc.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Country Profiles – NBSAPs, National Reports (5th)
Restoration target
30,000 hectares
Strategy on Biological Diversity of the Republic of Moldova for 2015-2020 and the Action Plan for enforcing it (2015)
  • Action Plan For the enforcement of the Strategy on Biological Diversity of the Republic of Moldova for the 2015-2020 (Annex 2, pg. 45)
    • Strategic framework - The main strategic documents on biological diversity:
      • The National Plan for Extending Areas with Forests for 2014-2018, approved by the Decree of the Government no. 101 (2014)
      • The National Strategy on the Conservation of the Biological Diversity and its Action Plan, approved by the Decision of the Parliament no. 112-XV (2001)
      • The Strategy for the sustainable development of the forestry in the Republic of Moldova, approved by the Decision of the Parliament no. 350-XV (2001)
      • The National Programme on Establishing the National Ecologic Network for 2011-2018, approved by the Decree of the Government no. 593 (2011)
      • The National Agricultural and Rural Development Strategy for 2014-2020, approved by the Decree of the Government no. 409 (2014)
    • Scope of Action 2. Implement measures to minimize degradation of water resources and aquatic biodiversity as well as identify protection measures for them
      • Restore riparian protection belts for rivers and water basins (Deadline: 2020); Indicators: Belts restored on a surface area of 3,000 ha (pg. 56)
Fifth National Report on Biological Diversity (2013)
  • What major changes have occurred in the status and trends of the biodiversity of the Republic of Moldova? (pg. 8-9)
    • Expansion of the areas with forest vegetation: in 2006 432,300 ha (12.78%), and in 2012 – 450,600 ha (13.32%) – an increase of 18,300 ha
    • The National plan on extending the forest vegetation areas for 2014-2018 stipulates the expansion of the afforested areas with 13,000 ha 
  • What are the objectives in the domain of biodiversity established in the Republic of Moldova? Reaching the target will be ensured by the implementation of measurable objectives:
    • Afforestation and grassing of the protection strips of accumulation water, public property: 2014 (300 ha); 2015 (360 ha); 2016 (310 ha), in order to ensure measures of halting land degradation and climate change mitigation. On degraded lands managed by mayoralties, during 2010 – 2012 were planted more than 800 ha of forest plantations and 144 ha of forest protection strips.
    • By 2018, afforestation of an area of 30,000 ha of riparian protection strips of river water and aquatic basins; 
    • Given the fact that the ecological reconstruction cuttings are followed by forest regeneration works (helping the natural regeneration, planting forest cultures, natural regeneration) – By 2020, carry out the ecological reconstruction of the degraded forest stands on an area of 5,000 ha 
  • The main policy document in the field of forestry is: the Strategy on Sustainable Development of the Forest Sector in the Republic of Moldova. The main objective of the Strategy is to achieve a degree of afforestation in the Republic of Moldova of 15% by 2020, covering with forest vegetation 130,000 ha. This volume is stated in another policy document: Programme for Exploring New Lands and Increasing Soil Fertility for 2003- 2010 (pg. 29)
  • State Programme on regeneration and afforestation of forest fund lands for 2003-2020 (pg. 30):
    • Provides creation of forest plantations on 24,655 ha
    • Natural regeneration on 39,036 ha and the natural regeneration on a surface of 31,427 ha
National Forest and/or Climate Strategy and/or Low Carbon Development Strategy
Environmental Strategy for 2014-2023 and Action Plan for its implementation (2014)
  • Specific Objectives (includes):
    • Improving soil quality and ecological restoration of degraded lands affected by landslides and protection strips of land at 100%
      • As a result, condition and quality of the 880,000 hectares of eroded land and 21,570 ha of land subject to landslides will be improved. 
    • Expansion of forests to 15% of the territory and natural areas protected by state up to 8% of the territory and the effective management and sustainability of natural ecosystems – lines of action: 
      • Expansion of forests from 11.1% to 15% to be achieved by planting about 150,000 ha of forests and forest plantations on degraded lands, forests within and outside the forest, and the promotion of mostly native species. 
      • There will also be planted about 30,000 ha of strips of water protection rivers and water basins
National plan for expansion of forest cover 2014–2018 (2014)
  • Recommends local authorities contribute to the implementation of the National Plan through:
    • Allocation of degraded lands and lands that have been designed strips of farmland protection in order to carry out afforestation
    • Afforestation of degraded lands, the protection strips water of rivers and water basins and forest bands for agricultural land protection in a minimum area of minimum 13,000 ha
    • Actions to maintain crop forestry 
  • Achieving afforestation activities of the National Plan is entrusted to Agency Moldsilva and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry
  • Annex: Afforestation (ravines, land subject to landslides, eroded land, etc.) on an 10,386.9 ha for 2015-2018, including: 2,500 ha (2015); 2,500 ha (2016); 2,500 ha (2017); 2,886.9 ha (2018) 
  • Annex: Afforestation of protection forest bands on agricultural land over an area of 1000 ha, including 250 ha/yr 2015-2018 via Annex to National Plan: http://lex.justice.md/UserFiles/File/2014/mo35-41ro/anexa_101.doc
Strategy for Sustainable Development of Forestry Sector (Resolution No. 350-XV) (In Romanian) (2001)
  • Basic Concept: The current state of the national forestry sector, in which:
    • Continually degraded forests
    • Measures to protect forest vegetation is insufficient to maintain the ecological balance necessary favorable development of human society
    • The direct contribution of the forest sector in solving social and economic problems remain as far as possible 
  • The state of forests requires the adoption of two basic strategic directions:
    • Restoration and [ecoprotective] potential of forests;
    • Expansion of forest vegetation areas
  • Restoring [ecoprotective] potential to be regarded as an indispensable component of the strategy, its effects are:
    • Mitigate the destructive effect of sudden temperature changes, droughts and other negative climatic factors; Reducing soil degradation through erosion; Reducing and stopping landslides; Improving the quality of water resources; Reducing air pollution; Making a decisive step towards the conservation of biological diversity
  • Objectives of the Strategy
    • Increasing the [ecoprotective] potential of natural forests – (including):
      • Preventing degradation putting further forest ecosystems through their sustainable use by establishing and maintaining optimal structure stands; 
      • Carrying out extensive repairs and reconstruction of forest regeneration, aiming at improving compositions biotypes resistant to drought and other negative factors
    • Conservation of forest biological diversity (including):
      • Expanding natural regeneration of trees by applying treatments which preserve and create various stands with optimal horizontal and vertical structures 
      • Establishment of an ecological network of protected forests and a keen interest in conservation and restoration of representative forest ecosystems
    • Extension of forest cover vegetation: [Ecoprotective] functions of forests are manifested only [more pronounced] if the afforestation territories exceeds 15%. For this it is necessary to cover forest vegetation at least 130,000 ha and create: 
      • New bodies forest areas extending existing ones; Green islands of trees and shrubs; Interconnection corridors is between wooded massifs; Protection belts along rivers, roads
    • Structural plan - new forest bodies and interconnecting corridors between them, created mainly on river courses, thus obtaining more benefits such as soil protection, improving hydrological regime, conservation of biological diversity;
    • In functional terms – forest bodies with fast growing species, which will improve the supply of firewood.
    • For this purpose it is planned: a) afforestation of degraded lands, those in the areas of water protection, according to the legislation; b) the transmission of privately owned land for forestry network completion
National strategy for agricultural and rural development for 2014-2020 (2014)
  • Table 13. Expected results and progress indicators of the Strategy
    • Support environmentally friendly production technologies, organic production and products ensuring biodiversity (pg. 63)
    • Indicator: Forested area, including forest protection (shelter) belts, ha
      • Expected outcome: increase by 7,000 ha
Program on amelioration of lands and increase of soil fertility (2003)
  • Foresees afforestation of 128,000 ha, and for implementation of Program Moldsilva annually plants about 7,500 ha of forest cultures at degraded and strongly degraded lands, landslides, ditch, etc. In total during the period of 2002-2008 besides forest fund were afforested about 53,000 ha of degraded lands.
Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects
GEF project ID: 5355 and UNDP project ID: 5259 – Title: Mainstreaming biodiversity conservation into Moldova’s territorial planning policies and land use practices (CEO approved 2015; cost: $5,854,566; timeline: 2015-2019)
  • Expected Results: Ecological connectivity established between and within different forest blocks through reforestation and sustainable forest management activities on 100 ha  
  • Component 2: Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity on Communal Land (pg. 29)
    • Given the threats to biodiversity in the forestry sector and the increasing fragmentation of remaining forests, building eco-forest corridors would create conditions for increased connectivity
    • Designing and implementing community forest management schemes to improve ecological connectivity in selected pilots. The Forest Research and Management Institute will develop a scheme of forest regeneration and sustainable forest management
  • See also: United Nations Development Programme Project Document
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