Map of Mongolia

Mongolia is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia, which is situated between China to the south and Russia to the north. While it does not share a border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometers (22.84mi). The country contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. The name "Gobi" is a Mongol term for a desert steppe, which usually refers to a category of arid rangeland with insufficient vegetation to support marmots but with enough to support camels. Gobi rangelands are fragile and are easily destroyed by overgrazing, which results in expansion of the true desert, a stony waste where not even Bactrian camels can survive. The arid conditions in the Gobi are attributed to the rain shadow effect caused by the Himalayas. Before the Himalayas were formed by the collision of the Indo-Australian plate with the Eurasian plate 10 million years ago Mongolia was a flourishing habitat for major fauna but still somewhat arid and cold due to distance from sources of evaporation. Much of Mongolia consists of the Mongolian-Manchurian grassland steppe, with forested areas comprising 11.2% of the total land area, a higher percentage than the Republic of Ireland (10%). Mongolia is known as the "Land of the Eternal Blue Sky" or "Country of Blue Sky" because it has over 250 sunny days a year.

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
156,412,000 hectares
Area of forest
8.1% of land area
Area of agriculture
72.7% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
0.0% of land area


3.0 million
Population growth
1.7% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
GDP per person
3967.80 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
14.50 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
Bonn Challenge Commitments
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
600,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
188 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.06 GtCO2 sequestered

The Asia Bonn Challenge event, held in May 2017, brought together twelve Asian countries to identify ways to collaborate on forest landscape restoration (FLR) in support of the Bonn Challenge. The event was jointly organised by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of South Sumatra in cooperation with IUCN. Along with pledges from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka during the same event, Mongolia made a pledge to the Bonn Challenge that helped to tip the Bonn Challenge over its 150 million hectare milestone. During the regional event, Dr. Tungalag Ulambayar, Permanent Advisor to the Minister of Environment and Tourism, made a statement on behalf of Mrs. Oyunkhorol Dulamsuren, the Minister of Environment and Tourism of Mongolia. Dr. Tungalag highlighted that the Environment and Tourism Minister gives high importance to Bonn Challenge, which offers an excellent opportunity to Mongolia to learn from other countries in the region in the areas of reforestation technology and restoration planning. Dr. Tungalag stated that despite Mongolia's challenges, the Ministry of Environment and Tourism of Mongolia is willing to commit to the goal of restoring over 600,000 ha forest areas by 2020 to reach 12, 912 thousand ha of forest cover or 8,3% of the country’s territory. She highlighted the importance of collaboration with IUCN with well-recognized expertise in the environmental conservation in this endeavor.   

National Restoration Targets

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FLR Assessments

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