Viet Nam map

Viet Nam is located on the eastern Indochina Peninsula. Viet Nam's land is mostly hilly and densely forested, with level land covering no more than 20%. Mountains account for 40% of the country's land area, and tropical forests cover around 42%. The northern part of the country consists mostly of highlands and the Red River Delta. Southern Viet Nam is divided into coastal lowlands, the mountains of the Annamite Range, and extensive forests. Comprising five relatively flat plateaus of basalt soil, the highlands account for 16% of the country's arable land and 22% of its total forested land. Viet Nam is one of twenty-five countries considered to possess a uniquely high level of biodiversity. It is ranked 16th worldwide in biological diversity, being home to approximately 16% of the world's species. 15,986 species of flora have been identified in the country, of which 10% are endemic. In agricultural genetic diversity, Viet Nam is one of the world's twelve original cultivar centers. The Viet Nam National Cultivar Gene Bank preserves 12,300 cultivars of 115 species. The Viet Namese government spent US$49.07 million on the preservation of biodiversity in 2004 alone, and has established 126 conservation areas, including 28 national parks. (Wikipedia)

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
31,007,000 hectares
Area of forest
47.6% of land area
Area of agriculture
35.1% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
12.3% of land area


91.7 million
Population growth
1.1% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP per person
2111.10 USD
GDP from agriculture

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
1.70 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
National Restoration Targets
Total restoration target
17,235,554 hectares
REDD+ Strategy
Reduction of Green-house Gas Emissions through Efforts to Reduce Deforestation and Forest Degradation, Sustainable Management of Forest Resources, and Conservation and Enhancement of Forest Carbon Stocks 2011 - 2020 (2012)

In the period 2016 - 2020, a set of objectives includes the accomplishment of mechanisms, policies, organizational structures and technical capacity to ensure the proper management, coordination and effective operation of projects and activities under the National REDD+ Action Program at the national scale; reducing greenhouse-gas emissions through reduction of deforestation and forest degradation, increased greenhouse-gas sequestration by forests, contributing to achieve the target of reducing 20% of the total emission in the agricultural sector by 2020, management and sustainable development of forest resources, increasing the national forest cover rate to 44-45%, conservation of biodiversity, and diversification and improvement of livelihoods of the forest owners and the people at large (p.3).

National Forest and/or Climate Strategy and/or Low Carbon Development Strategy
Restoration target
17,235,554 hectares
National Action Plan on Green Growth In Vietnam For the Period of 2014-2020 (March 2014)

Push up the progress of reforestation and forestation projects, encouraging enterprises investing in forests to increase the forest coverage to 45% in 2020, improving forest quality and increase CO2 sequestration capacity of forest and biomass for CO2 storage, assuring wood provision for production and consumption. Develop forest on un-used land and bare hills, mangrove forest, forest for sand and wave defense along rivers and coastal zones (p.15).

National Forest Protection and Development Plan for the period of 2011 - 2020 (2012)

Selected objectives (p.2):

2020 forest cover goal is 45%.

Sustainably protect and develop 13,388,000 hectares of existing forest, and 750,000 hectares of regenerated forest.

Improve forest function for environmental protection and biodiversity conservation while also contributing to the nation’s sustainable socio-economic development.

Increasing forest area to 15,100,000 hectares by 2020. This is an increase of 1,712,000 hectares (from 2010/11 level). This includes: afforestation of  2,600,000 hectares (new production and post-harvesting re-plantation); zoning for regeneration of 750,000 hectares; forest rehabilitation in poor natural forests of 350,000 hectares; and scattered tree plantings of 500 million trees (50,000 hectares using NFDS tree per hectare ratio).

Emission Reduction Program Idea Note (ER-PIN) – FCPF
Sustainable Management of Forests Through Low Emissions Development Planning for Green Growth in the North Centro Agro-Ecological Region (2014)

The proposed ER program for the North Central Agro-Ecological Region adopts a sustainable landscape approach to achieving national and provincial green growth targets through low-emissions development planning (LEDP) for land-based sectors (agriculture, forestry and energy). The LEDP approach, through PRAPs (as mandated by the NRAP), is advocated as the means to establish an enabling environment for the specific interventions in each productive sector (agriculture, forestry and energy) (p.19).

In support of the regional FPDP targets to regenerate 164,000 hectares of degraded natural forests, and to plant 35,000 hectares of new planted and replanted forest 32,000 hectares by 2020, production forestland allocation will be the principle intervention under the forestry sector strategy of the proposed ER Program. The significant area (750,000 hectares) of bare or degraded forestland, without dedicated statutory forest ownership will be allocated to forest owners, with priority going to local communities and ethnic minorities dependent on forests and with traditional practices of community forest management. Attention will be focused on reforestation efforts on newly allocated barren land and assisted natural regeneration of degraded forests for rapid carbon stock enhancements. A success of Forest land allocation (FLA) has been to encourage the protection and restoration of forest cover in uplands areas, and the rationale of this devolution was that villagers would be more interested in forest protection and management if they had formal rights to forest land (Sikor 2001), FLA is formally intended to maintain natural cover and to provide income through forestry activities FLA is further discussed in section 14 on tenure). Allocation of additional plantations (under extended rotation lengths) will be made to poor and ethnic minority households with limited alternative income generating opportunities from other on-farm livelihood strategies. As with agricultural value chains, technical and financial (access to credit) assistance will be provided through the Vietnam Bank for Social Policy or the Vietnam Agricultural and Rural Development Bank with assistance from the district agriculture and forestry extension centres (p.22).

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