Brazil map

Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by both area and population. Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world, with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado sustaining the greatest biodiversity. In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions. The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly made up of invertebrates. The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire, and invasive species. (Wikipedia)

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
835,814,000 hectares
Area of forest
59.0% of land area
Area of agriculture
33.4% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
0.8% of land area


207.8 million
Population growth
0.9% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
GDP per person
8538.60 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
2.50 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
Bonn Challenge Commitments
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
12,000,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
3,768 million USD
Potential climate benefit
1.14 GtCO2 sequestered
Brazil's Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
1,000,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
314 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.09 GtCO2 sequestered
Main forest types
Tropical/subtropical moist broadleaf forest
Highlighted benefits

In 2009, a group of NGOs, private companies, governments, and research institutions launched one of the most ambitious ecological restoration programs in the world – the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) Restoration Pact. The program has more than 260 members and has a mission to restore 15 million hectares of the forest by 2050. The Pact aims to promote biodiversity conservation, job creation and income generating opportunities through the restoration supply chain, provision of key ecosystem services to millions of people as well as to establish incentives for landowners to comply with the Forest Act. The coalition plans to restore more than 1 million hectares of land by the Bonn Challenge’s target of 2020.

National Restoration Targets
Total restoration target
3,200,000 hectares
REDD+ Strategy
Restoration target
3,200,000 hectares
Biome Plan - PPCerrado

This September 2010 policy calls for a 3,200,000 ha. increase planted forest areas (for charcoal) by 2020. 

Biome Plan - PPCDAm

This June 2013 policy:

  • Mentions forest restoration and agroforestry as activities that have access to Climate Fund resources
  • Mentions developing restoration methods for production forest areas
State Plan - PPCDAcre

This 2009 policy calls for reforestation goals to be met by 2010. 

National Forest and/or Climate Strategy and/or Low Carbon Development Strategy
PNMC National Plan on Climate Change

The Ministry of Agriculture (2012). ABC Plan discusses Crop-Livestock-Forest and Agroforestry and calls for an increase in the use of the system by 4,000,000 ha by 2020 (Est. funding: $14.4 B). 

It promotes reforestation through expanding Commercial Forests for fiber/wood/cellulose, specifying an increase from 6 → 9 Mha by 2020 (+3 Mha) with an estimated budget of $3.8 B.

The estimated budget (2011-2020) for the ABC Plan is $75 B.

The Amazon Fund references two projects:

  • Sepror Agroecologica which supports the expansion of sustainable production systems including agroforestry. In August 2013, $6.3 M was approved for 36 months.
  • Importance of Forest Environmental Assets which looks at the implementation of agroforestry systems for community Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). In October 2010, $25.6 M was approved for 36 months. 

Under the Forest Code (Law to Protect the Native Vegetation), the National Plan for the Recovery of Native Vegetation - Preliminary Version (PLANAVEG) (2014) provides a restoration estimate of 12.5 Mha.

Forest Investment Program (FIP)
Forest Investment Program

Brazil's FIP does not have any specific FLR targets but it is projected to support REDD+ related programs in the country including the ABC Plan and PPCerrado (see above).

For example, Project 1.2 in the FIP is ‘based upon the ABC Plan’ and the the logic framework for the Brazil Investment Plan includes ‘Restoration of degraded Areas of Permanent Preservation (APPs) and Legal Reserves’ as a ‘Target area.’ Finance has been pegged at $37.22 M in grants, $32.48M in loans and $57 M in co-financing totalling $126.7 M.

Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects
GEF projects

Brazil has three GEF projects.

Recovery and protection of climate and biodiversity services in the Paraiba do Sul basin of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil
28,500 ha watershed (forest recovered and restored) (Project code: 4834). This project has total financing of $195.4 M broken into a $26.6 M grant and $168.8 M in co-financing.

Sustainable land use management in the semi-arid region of North-east Brazil (Sergipe) (Project code: 5276) which looks at a 70,000 ha. increase in vegetative cover in agro-ecosystems. Total financing is a $3.8 M grant and $17 M in co-financing adding up to $20.8 M.

Reversing Desertification  Process in Susceptible Areas of Brazil: Sustainable Agroforestry Practices and Biodiversity Conservation (Project code: 5324) which looks to establish 10 biological corridors between 5 Protected Areas in Caatinga and 5 in Cerrado totalling 81,300-320,000 ha. The total financing includes a $3.93 M grant and $15.96 M in co-financing adding  up to $19.89 M.

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