Colombia map

Colombia is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with some territories in Central America. It is one of the 17 megadiverse countries in biodiversity with 40,000-45,000 plant species, which is equivalent to 10-20% of total global species. Colombia has the largest number of mondasendemic species (species that are not found naturally anywhere else) worldwide. Many of the Colombian trees are endangered species due to the high quality of the woods and timber industry exploitation (such as Colombian oak Quercus humboldtidiana and Colombian mahogany) and as source of tanning substances for the leather industry (such as mangrove and Encenillo tree Weinmannia tormentosa). (Wikipedia)

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
110,950,000 hectares
Area of forest
52.7% of land area
Area of agriculture
40.4% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
1.6% of land area


48.2 million
Population growth
0.9% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
GDP per person
6056.10 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
1.90 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
Bonn Challenge Commitments
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
1,000,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
314 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.09 GtCO2 sequestered
Main forest types
Tropical/subtropical moist broadleaf forest
National Restoration Targets
Total restoration target
2,017,984 hectares
Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) – FCPF
R-PP (2013)

This policy suggests a potential of 14 million ha. for forest plantations. Proposed actions include the implementation of programs for rehabilitation, restoration and recovery of forest ecosystems.

National Forest and/or Climate Strategy and/or Low Carbon Development Strategy
Restoration target
2,017,984 hectares
National Forestry Development Plan (2000) (NFDP)

This policy calls upon the government to: i) Establish industrial plantations (2000-2025); ii) Form and manage biological corridors for forest ecosystems

National Development Plan – 2010-2014

Under Agriculture & Rural Development, this policy calls for industrial forest plantations: 1,382,064 ha (by 2019) [from a 364,080 ha baseline (2010)] and a net increase of 1,017,984 ha. Reforestation targets include: 310,000 ha (2010) to 400,000 ha (2014)  reaching 90,000 ha (2010-2014).

Foundations of the National Development Plan 2014-2018

Under the Strategies and Goals section, a restoration target of 300,000 ha by 2018 goal is included. The baseline is 85,539 ha (2014) and the projected net increase in restoration is 214,461 ha.


A joint commitment from the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Environment to WRI and CIAT to have 1 Mha in the process of restoration by 2020.

PNR (2015) (National Restoration Plan: Ecological Restoration, Rehabilitation and Recuperation of Disturbed Areas (2015-2035))

Several phases are listed in this policy:

  • Phase 2: Includes implementing pilot restoration projects in priority areas (no hectares specified)  and is set for years 3-8 (2018-2023)
  • Phase 3: Implementation of the strategy on a large scale in priority areas, and is to begin year 10 through year 18 (2025-2033)
  • Implement restoration actions in disturbed areas: goal of 1,000,000 ha (disturbed areas restored and under the restoration process)

The PNR identifies over 23,000,000 ha in need of restoration in Colombia and specifies 3 types of restoration interventions.

National Policy for the Comprehensive Management of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (2012) (PNGIBSE)

This policy lists ecosystem restoration as a priority activity for 2014 and specifies the need to focus on biological corridors. The estimated cost is $93,000 (2012-2015).

Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects
GEF projects

Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Sustainable Cattle Ranching (2008-2014) (Project code: 3574): This was focused on agro-silvo-pastoral practices. The total financing was $12.5 M including a  $5.5 M grant and $7 M in co-financing.

Mainstreaming biodiversity in palm cropping in Colombia with an ecosystem approach (Feb 2011 – Dec 2015) (Project code: 4113): This looked at protecting and restoring High Conservation Value (HCV) areas but area will be based on number and size of plantations participating. Finance included a $4.25 M grant and $14.13 M in co-financing adding up to $18.38 M. 

Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in dry ecosystems to guarantee the flow of ecosystem services and to mitigate the processes of deforestation and desertification (submitted Dec 2011 – 60 month duration) (Project code: 4772): This looked at the ecological rehabilitationof dry forest in 6 watersheds. Total budget was $35.18 M with a $8.78 M grant and $26.4 M in co-financing.

Conservation of biodiversity in landscapes impacted by mining in the Choco Biogeographic Region (submitted Mar 2012 – 60 month duration) (Project code: 4916) which looked at biodiversity management in fragmented forests with landscape management tools (natural rehabilitation, agroforestry systems, etc.). Amount committed included a $5.85 M grant and $40.2 M in co-financing adding up to $46.05 M.

Sustainable Management and Conservation of Biodiversity in the Magdalena River Basin ( submitted Jan 2013 – 60 month duration) (Project code: 4849) which focused on watershed restoration. Financing includes a $6.3 M grant and $25 M in co-financing adding up to $31.3 M.

FLR Assessments

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