Niger map

Niger is a landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest. It is the largest country in West Africa, with over 80 percent of its land area covered by the Sahara Desert. Niger is a developing country, and is consistently one of the lowest-ranked in the United Nations' Human Development Index; it was ranked last at 188th for 2014. Much of the non-desert portions of the country are threatened by periodic drought and desertification. The economy is concentrated around subsistence and some export agriculture clustered in the more fertile south, and the export of raw materials, especially uranium ore. Niger faces serious challenges to development due to its landlocked position, desert terrain, high fertility rates and resulting overpopulation without birth control, poor education and poverty of its people, lack of infrastructure, poor health care, and environmental degradation. Environmental issues in Niger include destructive farming practices as a result of population pressure, as well as illegal hunting, bush fires in some areas and human encroachment upon the flood plains of the Niger River for paddy cultivation.

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
91,077,000 hectares
Area of forest
0.9% of land area
Area of agriculture
35.4% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
0.1% of land area


19.9 million
Population growth
4.0% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
GDP per person
359.00 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
0.10 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
Bonn Challenge Commitments
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
3,200,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
1,005 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.30 GtCO2 sequestered
Main forest types
Savannah and dry grasslands
Highlighted benefits

At COP21 in Paris, December 2105, Niger commited to restore 3.2 million hectares of degraded and deforested land as a contribution to the Bonn Challenge. In an interview for the Global Partnership on Forest Landscape Restoration, Dennis Garrity, drylands ambassador to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification, described the context for restoration in Niger and how smallholder famers have already restored millions of hectares of semi-desert across the country.

National Restoration Targets

Content not yet available.

FLR Assessments

Content not yet available.

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