Pakistan map

Pakistan is the 36th largest nation by total area, although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted. Ranging from the coastal areas of the south to the glaciated mountains of the north, Pakistan's landscapes vary from plains to deserts, forests, hills and plateaus. Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain and the Balochistan Plateau. The diversity of landscapes and climates in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine and deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains, through deciduous trees in most of the country (for example the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman Mountains), to palms such as coconut and date in southern Punjab, southern Balochistan and all of Sindh. The western hills are home to juniper, tamarisk, coarse grasses and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south. Coniferous forests are found at altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 4,000 metres in most of the northern and northwestern highlands. In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are common. In most of Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forestry as well as tropical and xeric shrublands. These forests are mostly of mulberry, acacia, and eucalyptus.Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world. This, along with hunting and pollution, is causing adverse effects on the ecosystem. The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to deal with these issues. (Wikipedia)

Quick Facts

Land use

Total land area
77,088,000 hectares
Area of forest
1.9% of land area
Area of agriculture
47.1% of land area
Area of permanent cropland
1.1% of land area


188.9 million
Population growth
2.1% annually
Rural population

Economics and development

GDP from agriculture
GDP per person
1429.00 USD

Climate change and biodiversity

CO2 emissions
0.80 metric tonnes per person
Threatened animal and plant species
Bonn Challenge Commitments
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
348,400 hectares
Potential economic benefit
121 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.04 GtCO2 sequestered
Main forest types
Boreal forests/taiga
Temperate coniferous forest
Highlighted benefits

In June of 2015 the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province (KPK), a province in northern Pakistan, announced that a massive tree planting campaign will contribute to the Bonn Challenge. The "Billion Tree Tsunami" campaign, launched earlier in the year by Imran Khan, Chairman of Pakistan's Tehreek-e-Insaf party,  aims to turn the tide on land degradation and loss in KPK, a mountainous, formerly forested province in the Hindu Kush mountain range. Alongside IUCN President Xinsheng Zhang, Imran Khan and government officials from KPK celebrated Pakistan's new contribute to the Bonn Challenge goal. The Pakistan government has promised 150 billion dollars to the forest restoration effort.   

National pledge
Goal year
Date committed
Area committed
100,000 hectares
Potential economic benefit
31 million USD
Potential climate benefit
0.01 GtCO2 sequestered

The Asia Bonn Challenge event, held in May 2017, brought together twelve Asian countries to identify ways to collaborate on forest landscape restoration (FLR) in support of the Bonn Challenge. The event was jointly organised by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of South Sumatra in cooperation with IUCN. Along with pledges from Bangladesh, Mongolia and Sri Lanka during the same event, Pakistan made a pledge to the Bonn Challenge that helped to tip the Bonn Challenge over its 150 million hectare milestone. Pakistan’s new national pledge is in addition to the sub-national KPK contribution. “Pakistan is pledging 0.1 million hectares to the Bonn Challenge as part of the Green Pakistan Programme spearheaded by our Prime Minister, H.E. Nawaz Sharif. The costs of implementing this commitment will be shared equally by the government and provinces. Other provinces in Pakistan are likely to make their own additional pledges in the near future,” said Iqbal Zafar Jhagra, Governor, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province.

National Restoration Targets
Total restoration target
1,755,982 hectares
Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) – FCPF
Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP): Pakistan (2013)

Proposed REDD+ Strategy Options 

  • Activities: 
    • Develop alternative livelihoods for people dependent on forest resources to supplement their income (p. 56)
      • Activities: Carry out forestation programmes and facilitate communities for SLM/INRM activities 
    • Afforestation programme (p. 58)
    • Promote indigenous species (p. 59):
      • Select indigenous species for afforestation programmes. 
  • Ongoing national/provincial donor-funded natural resource/forestry projects


    • Punjab Forestry related projects (p. 22):
      • Afforestation of Blank areas in different forests of Punjab (Rs.50 million) 
      • Afforestation along Important Highways in Punjab (Rs.37 million)
      • Afforestation in riparian forests in Central Zone (Rs.10 million)
      • Productivity enhancement in irrigated plantations through improved silviculture practices in Punjab (Rs.20 million) 
    • Balochistan Forestry related projects (p. 22):
      • Afforestation of 1000 acres in each district of balochistan (private participation).(rs300 million) 
      • Multi-sectoral project for conservation of juniper forest (devolved) (rs.493 million) 
    • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (p. 22-23):
      • Linear Plantation along Canals & Roads in Peshawar Forests Division (Rs.25.36 million) 
      • Rehabilitation of Waste Lands through vegetative Treatment in Haripur Forest Division (Rs.15 million)
      • Afforestation in Thandiani & Biren Gali Ranges of Galis Forest Division (Rs. 15 million)
      • Conservation and Improvement of Forest Ecosystems in Hazara (Rs.450 million) 
      • Rehabilitation and Improvement of Natural Resources in Malakand (Rs. 450 million) 
      • Propagation & Mass Afforestation of indigenous Species (Walnut, Chilghoza, Ash & Chinar) in Malakand and Hazara (Rs. 40 million)
      • Avenue Plantation on Government Land along Canals, Roads and Railway tracks in Southern Circle (Rs. 40 million) 
    • Sindh (p. 23): 
      • Plantation on Vacated Encroached Forests Lands in Sindh (Rs.218 million) 
      • Conservation and Development of Indus Delta Mangroves under the Administrative Control of Sindh Board of Revenue and Port Qasim Authority Coastal Belt of Sindh (Rs.80.57 million)
      • Conservation Development and Management of Indus Delta Mangroves to Check Sea Intrusion (Rs.631.67 million) 
      • Possible Role of Mangroves in Curbing Sea Intrusion in Indus Delta (Rs. 698 million) 
      • Master Plan for Plantation in all Districts Head Quarters, Talukas and Towns in Sindh i.e. Strengthening of Social Forestry (Rs. 15 million)
      • Tree Plantation in Badin District (Revised) (Rs. 75 million) 
      • Neem Tree Plantation in Larkana District (Rs. 53.6 million)
      • Rehabilitation, Restoration and Management of Flora and Fauna in Pai Forest of Afforstation Division (Rs. 77.7 million)
      • Mass Scale Tree Plantation Outside Forest Area to Mitigate Climate Change Affects in Sindh (Rs. 900 million) Enhancing Forest Cover on State Forest Lands in Sindh (Rs. 900 million) 
    • Gilgit-Baltistan (p. 24): 
      • Rehabilitation of Denueded Forest areas through sowing, Planning and Develop ment of farm/social forestry with community participation in GB. (Rs. 160 million) 
      • Protection and Conservation of Natural Forests in Hunza/ Nagar. (Rs. 23 million) 
      • Sustainable Forest Conservation in District Astore. (Rs. 30 million) 
    • Azad Jammu and Kashmir (p. 24):
      • Support to Natural Regeneration in Demarcated Forests in AJK (Rs. 321.5 million) 
      • Special Planting Program for Spring 2012 to Spring 2013 (Rs. 98.6 million) 
National Forest and/or Climate Strategy and/or Low Carbon Development Strategy
Restoration target
1,616,382 hectares
National Climate Change Policy (2012)
  • Adaptation
    • Forestry - Policy Measures
      • Forest Management (p. 10)
        • A/R programs with plantations
        • Restore degraded mangrove forests (deltaic region)
      • Arresting Soil Erosion (p. 11)
        • Afforestation on barren/degraded lands and uphill watershed areas
      • Reducing Forest Fires (p. 11)
        • Encourage afforestation with indigenous species and only useful/tested non-native species
  • Mitigation
    • Carbon Sequestration and Forestry (p. 29)
      • Set annual A/R targets to increase national forest cover
      • Promote farm forestry practices
National Forest Policy (2010)
  • Policy Measures (p. 6):
    • Bringing additional land under tree cover: The concept of social forestry, farm forestry, agro-forestry will be promoted by providing appropriate incentives to the farmers. Tree planting, soil stabilization and watershed management will be an integral component of all Federally funded projects for construction of new dams, water reservoirs, roads, railways, canals, industrial estates, housing schemes, etc. 
    • Preservation of Relict and Unique Forests: Native tree species, having strong cultural and social values, shall be preserved and promoted. It shall be the policy of Government to preserve these forests and associated biodiversity primarily for research, education, maintenance of local environment, and controlled eco-tourism; in partnership with rural communities by providing them their minimum subsistence needs from the forests, along with appropriate incentives in return for their active participation in the regeneration and protection of the forests.  
    • Juniper Forests: The Provincial Government shall take appropriate measures for conservation and sustainable management of these forests with the involvement of local communities. This shall be achieved by providing them incentives for enhancing their livelihoods and thus reduce their dependence on the forests for consumptive uses.
    • Spruce Forests: Spruce forests in Naltar, District Gilgit in Gilgit-Baltistan being famous for their biodiversity shall be protected with the involvement of local communities.  
    • Planting trees on farmlands: Farmers will be motivated to adopt farm forestry as a commercial enterprise for production of industrial wood, fuel wood and fodder. Provincial and local governments shall be encouraged to devise mechanisms of incentives for farmers for growing trees on farm lands, including exemption from water tax and provision of agricultural loans.  
National Sustainable Development Strategy (2012)
  • Forestry and Land Degradation: Strategy (p. 45):
    • Promote SLM land use planning
    • Increase forest cover from 4.8% (1990) to 6.0% by 2015
Ministry of Finance: Economic Survey 2009-10: Environment Chapter (2009)
  • Measures to enhance forest cover
    • Commitment to increase forest cover to 6% in 2015
      • The increase by ~1% implies an increase of 1,051,000 ha forest cover area (p. 228)
      • President Mass Afforestation Programme (2008): 5 year program
Vision 2030 (2007)
  • Chapter 3 – A Just and Sustainable Society
    • Inter-generation Equity and Sustainable Development - Major Strategies:
      • Double forest cover to 6% by 2030 (through better watershed management and planting campaigns) (p. 31)
      • Encouraging forest-based industry: fast growing species for timber, fuel, pulp ,etc. (p. 31)
Pakistan Planning Commission - Task Force on Climate Change (2010)
  • Forest Cover: 4.9% (2005) to 5.2% (2010) to 6.0% (2015) (p. 37)
Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (PTI Chief): Billion Trees Tsunami Afforestation Project (2014-2018)
  • Target: 311,282 ha forest rehabilitation primarily through closure (Assisted Natural Regeneration) (p. 7)
  • Target: 250,000 ha afforestation (plantations on ‘waste land’ to meet firewood demands) (p. 7)
  • Target: 3,000 ha reclamation of saline and water logged areas 
  • Target 4,100 ha (planting along roads, canals, railway) (p. 10)
  • Finance: $140,743,441 (Rs. 14,334.72 million) (p. 3, 20)
Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects
Restoration target
139,600 hectares
5660: Sustainable forest management to secure multiple benefits in Pakistan’s high conservation value forests (2014 – duration: 60 months)
  • Enhanced carbon sequestration in target forested landscapes (p. 2):
    • Reforestation: 26,200 ha (riverine forests) (p. 10)
    • Restoration: 13,400 ha (through Assisted Natural Regeneration) (p. 10)
    • Finance: $2,641,651 grant + $10,729,365 co-financing = $13,371,016
  • Total Finance: $8,338,000 grant + $26,500,000 co-financing = $34,838,000
4754: Sustainable Land Management Programme to Combat Desertification (2011 – duration: 60 months)
  • SLM applied to 800,000 ha (rangelands, agriculture, dryland forest)
  • 100,000 ha dryland forests (p. 1)
  • Finance: $3,791,000 grant + 16,630,000 co-financing = $20,421,000 (p. 1)
FLR Assessments

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